Findings of clinical research studies
Revitive Circulation Booster® uses clinically-proven Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) technology. Below are some of the research studies that have been carried out with both Revitive Circulation Booster and the technology it uses, Electrical Muscle Stimulation.
EMS is a widely used and well recognised technology that has been shown to help with the symptoms associated with poorer circulation and the relief of symptoms associated with some medical conditions (such as Diabetes and Osteoarthritis).
Improving leg circulation - with Electrical Muscle Stimulation
A study was undertaken to determine the effect of the Revitive footplate Electrical Muscle Stimulation device on blood flow in the legs of healthy individuals. Venous and arterial duplex ultrasound haemodynamic measurements were taken in 30 healthy volunteers whilst using Revitive. There was a significant increase in venous blood flow compared to baseline. Similarly, there was a significant increase in arterial blood flow compared to baseline. By improving blood flow, Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES, also known as EMS) has the ability to enhance venous return, counteract venous stasis and improve limb arterial inflow.
Study: Varatharajan, L., Williams, K., Moore, H., & Davies, A. H. (2014). The effect of footplate neuromuscular electrical stimulation on venous and arterial haemodynamics. Phlebology, 0268355514542682.
A study in healthy individuals found that Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) delivered through the foot plantar surface using Revitive was at least as effective as voluntary exercise for increasing lower limb blood flow and tissue oxygenation. Painless foot plantar surface stimulation is simple and safe to use and therefore could be effective for clinical groups who experience venous insufficiency as part of their disease progression.
Study: Zaidell LN et al. Plantar surface electrical stimulation increases blood flow and tissue oxygenation in the human lower limb. Poster Communications, Physiology 2014, London, UK. Proc Physiol Soc 31, PCA134
Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) of the plantar foot surface at twice the level of the motor threshold, combined with enabling ankle joint motion via a rocker built into the Revitive device, is perceived as non-painful but is effective at increasing lower limb perfusion and tissue oxygenation, at least as effectively as voluntary exercise. Foot and calf temperature was maintained or raised after EMS where it dropped after voluntary exercise. This could explain the additional effects of EMS on cutaneous circulation.
Study: Hunter SP et al. Electrically stimulated lower leg exercise, incorporating ankle flexion/extension, increases lower limb perfusion in humans. Poster Communications, Physiology 2014, London, UK. Proc Physiol Soc 31, PCA135
Reducing pain from osteoarthritis - with Electrical Muscle Stimulation
In this trial, knee osteoarthritis patients were randomised into either of two groups: a group receiving an exercise program and a group receiving the same exercise program plus electrical stimulation of the quadriceps femoris for 6 weeks. Both groups demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in pain comparing pre- with post- measures. Statistical analysis indicated a statistically significantly greater improvement in pain for the 'exercise plus electrical stimulation' group. This result shows that the addition of EMS to an exercise program increases the improvement in pain state for these patients.
Study: Elboim-Gabyzon, M., Rozen, N., & Laufer, Y. (2013). Does neuromuscular electrical stimulation enhance the effectiveness of an exercise programme in subjects with knee osteoarthritis? A randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation, 27(3), 246-257.
Reducing pain from diabetic peripheral neuropathy
- with Electrical Muscle Stimulation
Study: Kumar, D., Alvaro, M. S., Julka, I. S., & Marshall, H. J. (1998). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: effectiveness of electrotherapy and amitriptyline for symptomatic relief. Diabetes Care, 21(8), 1322-1325.
Help reduce swelling in legs & feet - with Electrical Muscle Stimulation
This study assessed whether the increase in foot and ankle volume (swelling) after 30 min of standing in healthy subjects could be minimised by Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). Foot and ankle volume in healthy subjects was measured before and after 30 min of standing or standing while EMS was applied to the lower leg. Post-test foot and ankle volume was significantly greater than pre-test volume after 30 min of standing, whereas no significant differences were found after 30 min of standing while applying EMS. By activating the musculo-venous pump, EMS may help minimise the increase in foot and ankle volume by increasing venous return, reducing venous stasis, increasing lymph flow and increasing interstitial hydrostatic pressure, which could in turn assist with fluid reabsorption.
Study: Lepar, G. S., Morrissey, M. C., & Cywinski, J. K. (2003). Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on foot/ankle volume during standing. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 35(4), 630-634.